Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 978 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/09/26 Category Technology Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Budget Essay Did you like this example? In the Airbus case we are faced with a capital budgeting decision. It is the planning process used to determine whether a firms long term investments such as new machinery, replacement machinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. It is budget for major capital, or investment, expenditures. Capital budgeting decisions are crucial to a firms success for several reasons. First, capital expenditures typically require large outlays of funds. Second, firms must ascertain the best way to raise and repay these funds. Third, most capital budgeting decisions require a long-term commitment. Finally, the timing of capital budgeting decisions is important. When large amounts of funds are raised, firms must pay close attention to the financial markets because the cost of capital is directly related to the current interest rate. In the case of Airbus the company is facing the decision of developing the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest commercial jet in order to compete on the very large aircraft market with Boeing 747. In order to calculate whether the investment is worth taking, a discounted cash flow analysis is used. How many aircraft does Airbus need to sell in order to break even on its investment? After making some assumption and calculation of the Net Present Value, Airbus would need to sell about 45 aircrafts in order to break even. (Please see excel file). If the Net present value is negative, then the investment is not worth taking and the project is not able to cover its investment. When the NPV is equal to zero, it is the point at which the project will beak-even. If the NPV is positive, the project is worth taking and it is able to cover all the investment costs and make a profit. What is AirbusÃ¢â¬â¢ maximum exposure in taking on the A3XX project? Undertaking this project has very high risk, since the investment made by the company is very high. The maximum exposure that the company is taking on the project is to loose all the investments made up to now, which is approximately $13 billion. This may lead to jeopardizing the future of the company and even bankruptcy. Other problems that they might face are during the manufacturing process, they may have difficulty keeping up with the deadlines and thus this may lead to penalty fees for late deliveries of aircrafts. This may cause a reduction in orders and customers turning to the competitors. Since there are significant risks involved in the situation, discuss at least 5 risk mitigation strategies that Airbus could undertake? Developing the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest commercial jet may face significant risks, and for this reason Airbus should undertake mitigation strategies to cope with the risks. Some of those risks include: if Airbus is not being able to meet manufacturing deadlines, low demand for the aircrafts due to high prices and problems with suppliers. What can Airbus do, well they could impose strict regulations on controlling t he manufacturing process. Airbus could make some discount for advance orders in order to stimulate demand. Establishment of good relationships with suppliers by trying to negotiate long-term contracts on prices and delivery. How do you expect Boeing to respond to a decision by Airbus to proceed with its decision to build the A3XX? It is very unlikely that Boeing will invest in the development of a competing aircraft since this decision is related to huge investments. If Boeing wanted to make this investment they would not have withdrawn from the project in 1995, when Airbus and Boeing were working together on a feasibility study for the plane. It is possible that Boeing might take a decision to cut its prices on the Boeing 747 and compete with its existing plane, while for Airbus would be difficult to compete with the low prices since they have other cost to cover such as development, marketing, etc. This strategy may divert sales from the A3XX. Ignoring the threat from the ne w Airbus aircraft would be also a possible solution for Boeing since they have the power to compete with its existing planes and they can concentrate on the production of its existing product line. The development of a stretch version of the 747, was also a solution for Boeing, which is what they actually did. Boeing 747 got an efficient make over to challenge A3XX. The new 747-8 may look like just another 747, but in addition to the new engines and swept wings, the new airplane is stretched more than 18 feet, increasing the volume by 16 percent. With the extra size and most importantly, extra efficiency Boeing may attract customers away from the Airbus A3XX. But with a first flight still ahead of them, Boeing has some catching up to do. In an effort to bring down those seat per-mile costs, and offer the maximum number of routes for the airlines, Boeing opted not to challenge the Airbus A3XX directly with a new super jumbo. Instead, the company opted for the smaller, point-to- point efficiency with the 787 Dreamliner. But the company didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to give away the jumbo jet crown without a fight. So instead of developing an all-new airplane to compete in the relatively small jumbo jet market, the company decided to give the iconic 747 a makeover. The new 747-8 is a stretched version of the most recent 747 model, the -400. The extra space can accommodate 51 more seats than the -400. Though even with the new room, the new Boeing airplane still wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be able to carry as many passengers as the A3XX. So the A3XX will remain the king of the jumbos for the foreseeable future. It will be the biggest airliner, carrying the most passengers of any airplane in the world. But when the new 747-8 lifts off the runway sometime soon, it might just demonstrate that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be the biggest to win the fight. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Airbus Case Summary" essay for you Create order
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Global Issues Profile Essay Cuba: Human Rights Yasamin Saaed Ms. Pang, Per: 3 10 December 2015 Everyone has the right to life, freedom, and security. Human rights are the basic freedoms and rights that people are entitled to. All around the world people are being mistreated and the authorities are not respecting people and their human rights. Human rights are essential in order to have equality, freedom, and order. These rights, such as freedom of speech, the right to be free from prejudice, and simply the right to live are being violated all over the world. People everywhere are being imprisoned and punished for just trying to live free, be who they are, and expressing themselves. This is a big issue all around. Everyone around theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Women faced major oppression, as well as the poor. As the Borgen Project states, Ã¢â¬Å" Females and the poorÃ¢â¬ ¦ often denied legal rights and knowingly oppressed by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s political entities.Ã¢â¬ Women and the poor were not treated equally with the men and the rich. Sudan also faced drastic issues involving human rights. Bloody massacres occurred, taking the lives of 100,000 refugees. Also, Sudanese officers continued to violently disband protests and arrested activists and protesters. By the law enforcement officers doing this, they disrespected the Sudanese peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s right to freedom of speech. These are just a few of the many places where human rights are being violated by authoritative figures. Human rights are not being handled well by police officials, but what about the country as a whole? Several countries around the world have signed human rights treaties but the most influential country seems to be the United States. The U.S. is known for having a lot of police brutality, especially to African American males. Even with all this going on, the United States, as a nation is big on promoting equality and human rights. The U.S. is also supporting one of the most basic human rights, the right to live. Many states in the past couple of years have gotten rid of the death penalty. According to the Death Penalty Information Center, 19 states have abolished the death penalty. Hopefully, this will influence many more places to get rid of the death penalty,
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essays on Purchasing Policy of the San Bernardino IT Department Personal Statement Ã¯ » ¿ Purchasing Policy The San Bernardino IT Department will purchase the products and services needed by the different departments. The policy is divided into four areas. The areas are purchasing requisition, supplier selection, store room or supply room inventory, and payment of products and services. A. Purchase requisition. The IT departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy is for the line and staff employees to initiate the processing of the required medical and other supplies. The procedures are plain and simple. First, the staff shall fill up the purchase requisition form. Second, the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s immediate superior will approve the purchase requisition after verifying the staffÃ¢â¬â¢s reasons for processing the purchase request. Third, the staff brings the approved requisition form to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s storeroom or supply room for processing. Fourth, if the store room or supply room officer finds the requested product in the supply room, the supply room or storeroom will release the stored supply part to the staff, retaining a copy of the approved supply request form. Fifth, the supply officer lets the staff sign the storeroom or supply room records to indicate the staff had received the requested product or service. Sixth, if the store room or supply room does not have the requested product or service requested by the staff, the supply officer shall submit the purchase request to the purchasing officer. Lastly, the purchasing officer shall contact the bids committee. The bids committee will process the purchasing of the required product or service from external sources (suppliers). B. Supplier selection. The IT departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy is for the bids committee to manage the purchase of the required IT departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s products from the winning bidders. The procedure can be easily introduced to the concerned company employees. First, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bids committee shall request the suppliers to submit bids for each product purchase. Second, the bids committee evaluates the offers of the different suppliers. Third, the winning bidder is the supplier offering the best quality product or service at reasonable prices. Fifth, the bids committee awards the purchase contract to the winning bidder who will permit a 30 pay payment credit term (purchases are paid within 30 days from the date of the purchase or delivery of the goods to the buyer company). C. Store room or supply room inventory. The IT department policy is for the store room or supply room inventory to ensure that there is an ample supply of normally requested company products. The procedure can be easily understood. First, the store room officer shall request the different departments to submit their next business periodÃ¢â¬â¢s projected product or service requirement. Second, the store room officer shall conduct a count of the current quantity of products or service requirements stored in the supply room or store room. Third, the store room officer shall submit a request to the bids committee to purchase the next periodÃ¢â¬â¢s required product or service supply demands in case the store room or supply room stocks are not enough to meet the projected requirements. D. Payment of purchases. The IT departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy is to ensure the suppliers agree to 30 day payment policy. The procedure can be clearly understood by the concerned line and staff personnel. First, the accounting department receives the winning suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ statement of account. Second, the statement of account includes the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ delivery receipt. Fourth, the accounting department prepares the disbursement vouchers and the check after confirming that the stocks were delivered to the company. Sixth, the budget officer signs the voucher to affirm that the company has sufficient budget (funds) to pay for the purchased supply or service. Lastly, the accounting department calls the supplier to collect the approved check.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Case Study on Green IT. Answer: Introduction Green IT is the process which involves the effective usage of all the resources involved in IT department also by increasing the total performance. In order to have the sustainable Green IT, the following should work in integration, power management, fundamental, technology to improve cooling, recycling, completeupsurgingof the IT sector. Recent studies have revealed that power consumption alone by the IT department is nearly 50% of the total consumption of theorganization. With the Green IT itis expectedthat the costwill be reduced, butactually,very less efforthas been made. The aim of the Green IT is to create awarenessandencourage the IT industries to adopt the policies for encouraging the environment-friendly technologies.The Australian Information Industries Association (AIIA) and the Australasian Association for Information Systems (AAIS) have shown their support inSIGsActivities. The Conceptualization of Green IT is toincorporatetheeco-sustainabilityat various levels in the ex isting IT department. The major aim in adopting Green IT is toincorporatethe present generations needs without negotiating with the future generations environmental conditions. The three sustainability pillars are theenvironment, society and economy (Rao Holt , 2006). In order to understand the clear meaning of GreenITlets havea look at the literature review of theinfrastructureof IT department. There is a green supply chain which involvesthe integration ofthe environment in designing the product, its resource, the manufacture of the product, distribution and management ofthe destruction ofthe product all thisshould beeco-friendly (Srivastava, 2007).The IT companys main focus is to deal with the output of the data center. IT companies have been taking the initiative for Green IT by improving technologies, decreasing the power consumption, cooling and the cost of real estate involved in data center operation. Instead,Green IT is more than thisrather thanjust focusing only on technologies relatedhardware, practicesshould beacquired for soft businesses also (Rasmussen Williams, 2006). So Green IT is not justthe application ofgreening on ITartifacts, but also using the IT for achieving sustainability in the enterprise. It is actually involving of the environmental factor during formation of policies at various levels of operation, at the human infrastructure than at managerial level also. Discussion As the Internet based business is growingat a rapid ratenow, which ismetamorphicallytermed as Cloud IT. The energyutilizedfor running these upgraded technologies are the major cause for industries turning toward Green IT. In the past few years with the excessive use of environmental, energy which has further led to increased carbon generation, both these above factors have led to have Green IT. With the growing demand, there has been the rapid expansion of the data centers at an increased cost of IT, which has, in turn, caused the excessive increase in energy consumption resulting in having adetrimentaleffect on the environment. The data centers of the IT companies accounts forapproximately50 % of the power consumption bill of the total company bill and accounting nearly half of the waste in the form of corporate carbon. Even though the rate at which energy is consumed and the cost involved is the keyfactorfor Green IT, but the risk involved along with it of climatic change has alar med the issue globally (Society, 2016). Now the government has become aware and increasingly forcing the industries to adopt more and more Green IT practices in their system. No doubt the use of Green IT has its impact on business so companies will keep its focus on reducing the costand alsofocus on improving its technology of energy consumption in data centers. The first initiative toward this changewill not becompleted towards the end of ecological damage. The first wave will be more driven to reduce the cost of the business and making the potential for Green IT products. As more and more ecological issuesare being raisedwith the IT products and its complete process needs totakecare of. Even though the market seemsto bechanging as now vendors are also distinguishing the product and their services on the basis of energy consumed and its costs. Definitely, the benefitwill be deliveredwith time when the company itself willrealizethe environmental and social responsibility. Then came the second wave, which was more focused onthe sustainability ofthe product and its services. In this, companies have made an effort to bring the change in Green IT by adopting the strategies for the benefit of ecology (Rouse, 2016). The changed business model includes, change in behavior and the culture of the organization,new innovationsin the technology is the demand of the hour, redefine market all this will work in unison for new business models for integrating its environmental and civil responsibility. Factors responsible for adopting Green IT Improved Technology at rapid rate With the growing facility, the dependency has also increased for electronic data, which in turn demanding a number of data centers. At very fast pace, people adopted this new technology of communication and transferring data. Its usage has increased and reached to every sector involved in the government sector storing large data, legal documents have made the process simpler and easier. Not only this entertainment sector has completely seen vast change, industries like banking, healthcare, real estate, transportation etc have seen large benefits because of this evolution. Not only this many federal, local and state government agencieswere seenchanging the strategies by implying the web services for their work (Mortleman, 2010). Development in Equipment Advance CPUs were introduced of higher performances with decreased power consumption capacity per CPU, but there was the flaw in this development, such CPUs require more servers with higher performances with an enhanced memory space. Which resulted in more power consumption. Not only this, more servers needed more space to be placed. Further development was introduced which invented smaller servers with larger capacity. Now by increasing the packaging density it led to an increase of power density. This increased power density led to more power consumption, it was much more than in comparison to the previous one it was nearly more than ten folds. Earlier which was 300 watts for each square foot in 1996 in 2007 it reached to 4000 watts for each square foot. Demand for increased cooling As the power density of the server was increased, the demand for increased cooling came as complimentary with this development as each data center started experiencing increased heat density (O'Flynn, 2011). Enhanced energy cost As the power consumption and cooling expenditure have increased for the data centers. More expenditure will be required by the increase in energy consumption at each data center. With the increase in the number of server and data centers and with the latest ongoing approach followed by the industries for carbon capping and marketing scheme, the cost tends to increase tremendously (Nguyen, 2011). Decreased server application The efficiency of the data has become the major problem. On an average, only 5-10 % of the server was utilized at big data centers. Which means actualutilizationis very less and power consumption compared to its effective usage is quite large for servers, which means companies are paying a huge amount as compared to little work done. The Impact of IT on an environment Carbon is emitted as the by-product of the IT product usage, which is directly proportional to the amount of energy used. In 2007 nearly 45 million servers were working worldwide, consuming approximately 0.52 % of total electricity. It is expected if the scenario continues like this than by every year carbon emission will grow by more than 11.1%, which will lead to 342 metric megatons till 2020 (Olson, 2008). Strategy Guideline The transition of IT to Green IT is a comprehensive process as it involves various strategies of applying different approaches toamendthe current working policies and condition in order to improve the efficiency of the operations at the data centers. The main aim is to focus on lowering the cost along with reducing the impingement on the environment caused by computing. Undoubtedly, this transition is a comprehensive approach which involves integration at various levels of power, then cooling with more efficient hardware, improved softwares etc. Infrastructure of the Data Centers Infrastructure includes the following equipment storage devices, network equipment, chillers, pumps, power supplies, fans, etc. The data centers whose infrastructureswere madepast ten years, theirequipmenthas reached the end life so they neededto bechanged. As the outdatedequipmentsare inefficient and they consume more energy (Bose Luo, 2011). The outdated data centers consume nearly double or three times more power and they also need more cooling. So here the strategy is to set up a new datacenter with the latest and more efficiently designedequipmentsor recycle the existing one. Managing the Power Effective managing softwares for the power and distribution of the workload can actually save nearly $60-80 on each desktop per month and this is more for servers. Power management softwares are designed to regulate the processor by understanding its power states so that it can distribute the workload according to the desired requirement. Processor power act like a good manager who understand the need of the server when the workload is less it conserves the power (Bose, 2011 ). Companies have understood that the laptop has better power management ability as compared to the desktop. Management of heat Technology has improved and has become compact because of which power density has raised in data centers, whichhas leadto the need for efficient andSkillful heat dissipation equipments (Wrong, 2005). Emblematic strategies whichhave been followedfor the thermal managementofmore effective cooling equipment, smart thermostats, also data centerswere designedwith raised floor. Product designing Latest products are designed with improved technologies, like microprocessor which was introduced in 2002 was having nearly 50% better performance from the processor in 1982. Even though energy consumption by the server continued to upsurge relatively in proportion with the new improved server. Multi-core microprocessor were introduced which runs on low voltage and at low speed than to those compared to the processors which run faster and consume more energy. A scaling component of the microprocessor helps to manage the fluctuating workload. Still the existing microprocessor which works at low level consumes more energy. The strategy is to have the microprocessor which works in accordance with work the performance (UNSW Business School, 2011). Virtualization Virtualization is the support system on which latest computing system relies upon. Virtualization in data center affects the following areas: hardware of the server and its operating system, network, storing capacity, type of infrastructure (Molla, 2009). Visualization works by enhancing the server utilization by incorporating the more applications on few servers. Conclusion As the business is increasing, government and NGOs have started realizing the problem caused to the environment by the IT sector. Now the consumers are becoming more responsible and aware about the current condition so they support the use of sustainable product and its usage. So now IT companies were initially forced to to have Green IT product now they themselves have started taking the initiative for the same. Virtualization has great impact on technology as well as on the business processes. Implementing the new advanced techniques with less energy consumption with more power and increased in space microprocessor. As to plan better environment for our future generation. Bibliography Bose, R., 2011 . Integrative framework for assessing firms' potential to undertake Green IT initiatives via virtualization - A theoretical perspective. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems , March, 20(1), pp. 38-54 . Bose, R. Luo, X., 2011. Integrative framework for assessing firms potential to undertake Green IT initiatives via virtualization A theoretical perspective. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems , March, 20(1), p. 3854. Molla, A., 2009. GREEN IT DIFFUSION: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON Mortleman, J., 2010. Weighing the benefits of green IT. Weighing the benefits of green IT, 12 February. Nguyen, D., 2011. Australia lagging on Green IT: Report. Australia lagging on Green IT: Report, 20 September. O'Flynn, A., 2011. GREEN IT: THE GLOBAL BENCHMARK Olson, E., 2008. Creating an enterpriseÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã level green strategy. Journal of Business Strategy, 29(2), pp. 22 - 30. Rao, P. Holt , D., 2006. Do green supply chains lead to competitiveness and economic performance?. International Journal of Operations Production Management, 25(9), pp. 898 - 916. Rasmussen, C. E. Williams, C., 2006. Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning: MIT Press. Rouse, M., 2016. Green IT (green information technology). Green IT (green information technology) . Society, A. C., 2016. Green IT: Mission and objectives. Green IT. Srivastava, S. K., 2007. Green supply-chain management: A state-of-the-art literature review. IJMR, 28 February, 9(1), p. 5380. UNSW Business School, 2011. Green IT: A Costcutting Strategy Beyond Switching Off the Screensaver. Green IT: A Costcutting Strategy Beyond Switching Off the Screensaver, 19 July. Wrong, V., 2005. Marketing Strategies and Market Prospects for Environmentally-Friendly Consumer Products. BJM, 21 March, 7(3), p. 263281.
Friday, April 10, 2020
White (2007) places importance on stimulating outdoor provision emphasising the positive effect it has on minds and bodies. She suggests outdoor play is essential for children but needs considerable planning to be fruitful which my research with children will support. The outdoor play space provides a complex learning environment that is more flexible and child led than indoors and provides an area where children can make sense of the world, by play and exploration of the natural world. White 2007) Therefore as the outdoors is such an invaluable and popular part of the provision, it was an area that I felt would be valuable in gaining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives. To enable children to have a voice and engage them in participation, I carried out a small research project with the children in my setting, to gain their perspectives on our outdoor play area. Before commencing my research with children, I considered various ethical considerations and ensured I was meeting article 12 of The United Nations Convention on the rights of the Child (United Nations 1989). We will write a custom essay sample on Reflective Account or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The work was of benefit to the children by enabling their voice to be heard. By gaining their perspective their outdoor space will be based on their ideas rather than adults. Article 12 of UNICEFÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and responsibilities of a child (UN 1989 article 12) emphasises childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to participation and be consulted when decisions affect them. It places importance on listening to children and engaging them in age and development appropriate consultations which is what I planned to carry out. I carried out research with four children. Two preschool children and two children from toddlers, as it was their area that was to be developed. To ensure the children were a reflection of the setting two girls and two boys were invited to take part, of which one was bilingual, and one was a different ethnicity to white British. The reason for this is in the setting the majority of children are white British, speaking only one language, but we also have children whom are bilingual and various ethnicities. Prior to commencing my research I gained relevant permission, and explained what I planned to do and why. I created a leaflet for the children in age appropriate language to explain about my research and why I was carrying it out. I then asked each child individually if they would like to take part and explained if at any point decided they wished to end their part in it, they can stop at any time. I also reassured them the information they gave me would be confidential and anonymous, but I asked if they would allow me to share the results with parents and practitioners, and I explained how I would use the gathered information. To enable the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s voices to be heard, I explored various tools to engage the children from the Mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001). I disregarded using questionnaires as the children were unable to read and write so this would have been inappropriate. I disregarded role play as I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel I would get the responses I needed as directly, and I decided not to use tours as not all the children were confident communicators and they may have found this difficult. I wanted to be as inclusive as possible and ensure the technique was age and development appropriate. Therefore I chose to gather documentation by enabling the children to use cameras to take photos outdoors of what they liked and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like. To ensure confidentiality of the photos taken I kept them in my private locked filing cabinet that only myself and my manager had access to. As my research required the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions this technique ensured it was child led as were the later discussion where we came together in a quiet area to talk about why they took their particular images. This discussion enabled me to interpret what they were trying to say to me through the photos. As we looked at the photos it prompted their memory of why they had taken the picture. It was an interactive way to engage the children, and by the children taking their own photos helped lead the discussion. This approach worked well for the younger children whom were aged 2 and the child whom had an additional language as it gave them a voice without complex questions. However the difficulty with this approach was even after practice prior to the research, the younger children struggled slightly with using the camera. It was a small digital camera with buttons which were all silver; the difficulty the younger children had was holding the camera and knowing which button to press at the same time. On reflection using a childÃ¢â¬â¢s camera with easy to press coloured buttons would have been easier for the children to use. The research went well, the older children seemed to have more understanding but all the children were clear in what they liked and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like in the outdoor space. What was surprising to find was the results were conclusive the areas that adults created without childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s input are not popular, and I was surprised that the spaces I found uninspiring were the areas the children spoke passionately about, in particular a photo of a plain open space was the beginning of a long conversation between all children about the type of imaginative play they undertake in that area, whereas my assumption on looking at the image, was it was going to be an area they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like. This is a clear example that adults cannot see clearly through the eyes of a child and that children should be participating in all areas that they use as clearly stated in article 12 of the UN conventions of the rights of the child. (United Nations 1989) The children were very enthusiastic about taking part and spoke passionately about it to their peers. However although this gave the children a voice, it was only a small sample of children voices , it gave me an insight into their perspectives but I want to do this on a larger scale to ensure that all childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s voices are heard in a way that makes they feel safe, secure and valued. However this needs to be consistent throughout the setting and needs to be continual but also achievable. If children are empowered to have a voice and know they are heard, then this continual two way communication will be more achievable as the children clearly have a thirst for this. This aspect of the Mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) would work well in the future as it allows even the less confident communicator to participate and have their voice heard without speaking. To help support my research I used part of the Mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) which Clark and Moss (2001) call a Ã¢â¬Ëframework for listeningÃ¢â¬â¢. It states that children are confident communicators from birth, and recognises that children communicate in different ways, whilst acknowledging the contribution children can make as Ã¢â¬Ëexperts of their own livesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Clark 2005). The Early Years Foundation Stage (Great Britain 2007) echoes this theory, and emphasis childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to have a voice and be listened to. The mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) is a tool that can be used across settings in many ways to develop practice and support reflective practice. It recognises symbolic communication which relates to my research, as I used cameras to enable the children to communicate their likes and dislikes in the outdoor area. It is suggested by Clark and Moss (2001) that by using cameras it may assist verbal communication therefore make a positive contribution. This was evident in my research as the images taken were discussed with the children afterwards, and it worked effectively enabling me to understand the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives at a greater depth. The Mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) explores adultÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of children, in my case the setting had perceived ideas of what the children liked and disliked outdoors when creating the outdoor space for the children previously, without their input. These perceptions are essential as from my research it was proved what the adults thought the children wanted, they in fact did not. After completing the research and after gaining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s permission, I held a staff meeting to feedback the results of the research and what was learnt during this module. Initially some staff were negative about childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation and labelled it time consuming, but after the session I held with them, and on reflection of their own practice they were able to see the benefits of giving children a voice. The mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001)goes on to discuss using practitioner and parent knowledge of the child to inform perceptions and interpret information that is gathered, for example the images that the children took outdoors in my research. The Common core (Great Britain, 2005) aspect of effective communication and engagement with children, young people and families supports this and emphasises the importance of listening and communicating with children and families in various ways, whilst being respectful and understanding individual needs. It discusses developing trusting relationships to develop communication, and the importance of involving them in decision making, as I did by sharing my research with the parents of the children involved, to support my interpretation of documentation and reflect and actively look and listen to what the children are trying to say. This research has opened the eyes of the setting and practitioners and enabled us to reflect upon how we enable children to make a positive contribution, and not only listen to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s voices but actively seek their perspectives. Prior to reflecting on our practice it was evident that the importance of enabling children to have a voice had been overlooked. The research clearly gave children the voice they needed as they were so passionate and engaged throughout. This is an area which as a setting we will use going forward in evaluating all areas of provision. It would have been beneficial to spend more time on my research to make it more valuable by using more pieces of the mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) however this will be a long term action which has already been initiated and will be developed over time. All children have the right to be heard and treated as equal human beings with respect, and tools such as the Mosaic approach (Clark amp; Moss 2001) are invaluable in enabling practitioners to reflect on practice and improve outcomes for children, allowing them the time and confidence they need to make a positive contribution to not just their outside play area but to a world which is theirs. References. CLARK, Alison (2005) Ways of seeing: using the mosaic approach to listen to young childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives in: CLARK, Alison. KJORHOLT, Anne Trine and MOSS, Peter (eds. ) Beyond listening: childrens perspectives on early childhood services. Reflective Account free essay sample This seemed to keep his mind off worrying about were his wife or daughter was and stopped him from wanting to walk about the ward. After a while the patient asked if he could lie down for a while, and I explained that this was ok. I lowered the bed for the patient as low as it would go, to prevent the patient from falling or injuring himself while climbing into the bed. By doing this I was following the guidelines set out by the health and safety at work act 1972 and carrying out risk assessments to prevent harm to myself or others.Once the patient had got into the bed safely I put the bed side up to prevent him from falling out while he was sleeping, I then gave him his buzzer. Before leaving the room I asked the patient if he would like the room door left open or closed over, by doing this I was promoting the patients right to choice and individuality. We will write a custom essay sample on Reflective Account or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I then left the room and closed the door as the patient had requested, and told the staff nurse in charge of him, that he was now sleeping, and that I had emptied his catheter bag and updated the fluid balance chart.I had to tell the staff nurse that I had left the room, so that if anything happened they knew that I was not there, as I would be accountable for it. Being accountable for my actions is one of the NMC code of conduct and is in line with professional accountability. I think that this task was very fulfilling as I was able to help other staff around me, as well as keep a patient calm. I enjoyed talking to the patient and found it very interesting. It also allowed me to practice keeping patientÃ¢â¬â¢s charts up to date. References
Monday, March 9, 2020
Cultural Diversity of Ford Motor Company Employees Free Online Research Papers The rise of multinational companies and increased global diversification by even small companies has resulted in people of diverse backgrounds and cultures working together in the same office or for the same organization. Conflict in such situations is predictable, but understanding the diversity issues can help companies implement programs designed to keep conflict at a minimum and to take full advantage of the many benefits which such diversity brings to an organization. Key to understanding how diversity is managed in multinational organizations is understanding the concept of corporate culture (which defines organizations), diversity programs and their use to minimize conflict among employees, and the unique problems that employees working overseas encounter. One of the biggest companies that have worked a lot on diversity is Ford Motor Organization. Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the worlds second largest automaker, selling vehicles in 200 markets and with approximately 345,000 employees on six continents. Ford also is a family with a heritage of strong and clear values. One of the most essential of Ford values is their commitment to diversity and inclusion. For Ford, diversity is a means to an end. It is one of the ways the company is seeking to drive a transformation to a team-based workplace. To have meaningful relationships with customers (and other stakeholders) it is essential to have an understanding of their needs. Having a diverse workforce is one of the ways of building this capacity into the company. From the start, Henry Ford and the family of Ford employees have valued diversity. Henry Ford launched our diversity journey when he offered a $5-a-day wage in 1914. Thousands of immigrants and African-Americans flocked to Ford Company, lured by the prospect of pay that was more than do uble the prevailing industry standard. This revolutionary event in American business created a new middle class and established Ford as one of the first American companies to truly reflect the growing diversity of the United States. By as early as 1916, Ford employees represented 62 nationalities and every major world religion. By 1919, there were enough Ford employees of Middle Eastern descent in the Detroit area to support a Muslim mosque - the first to be built in the United States. Ford also employed more than 900 people with disabilities. We were one of the first companies to adapt work environments to their needs. Ford first African-American salaried employee, Eugene J. Collins, was hired in 1919, despite a segregated America. By 1920, Ford employed more African-American hourly workers than any other automotive company. Ford first collective bargaining agreement with the United Auto Workers in 1941 was groundbreaking because it explicitly prohibited discrimination based on race, color, national origin or creed. By 1946, gender was added to the non-discrimination clause, prompted by the entry of women into the work force during World War II. Ford middle years produced a number of firsts, including the first African-American and female executives. In 1967, Henry Ford II proclaimed that dealers and suppliers are valued members of the extended Ford family. In 1969, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first plant forewoman was promoted. In 2005, Ford names Anne Stevens, executive vice president and chief operating officer of The Americas. She is the highest ranking woman in the automotive industry. Today, Ford is as diverse as the world itself, providing an exciting portfolio of cars and trucks to customers in 200 markets around the world. Defining Diversity and Its Values Diversity literally means variety, and embracing workplace, diversity means welcoming the full variety of society: different races, ethnicities, cultures, genders, sexual orientations, religions, ages, abilities, education, beliefs- any characteristic that distinguishes groups of people. Offer equal opportunities to all people, regardless of these factors, is simply the right thing to do, and part of being a responsible corporate citizen. Accordingly, ford motor company has long maintained non-discrimination policies and actively measures its progress in creating and promoting a diverse workplace. But diversity also supports and strengthens business. Welcoming a wide range of people into the company opens up a bigger pool from which to find the best- qualified candidates. And diverse working teams bring together different ideas and perspectives, challenging one another for the best results. Moreover, in this global economy, having many different groups represented within the company helps make its products and services more appealing to costumers who are members of those same groups. Diversity embodies all the differences that make us unique individuals. Not limited to physical aspects of race, ethnicity, gender, age, disability, and sexual orientation, it includes culture, religion, education, experience, opinions, beliefs, language, nationality and more. Diversity enhances confidence and improves the contributions made by people in such environments. Valuing and respecting each individual simply makes good sense. Success and productivity are natural extensions of a corporate culture that truly values all people. Bill Ford said valuing different employee backgrounds and skills makes the company more responsive to the marketplace. Ã¢â¬Å"In the end ford company is more successful. And ford employees, our customers, our shareholders and our business associates, they all benefit, Ford said. In other words, diversity is not a favor to the world. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a richness that strengthens us as a company and gives us a competitive advantage.Ã¢â¬ Ford Motor Company continues to receive recognition for its diversity programs. Most recently, the company received a 100 percent score on the Human Rights Campaign Corporate Equality Index (CEI). The CEI is a review on how AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s top companies treat their lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender employees, consumers and investors. Ford previously scored 85 percent, but by prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and expression, the score took a considerable jump. The number of companies receiving the top grade rose to 56 in 2004, from 28 in 2003, and just 13 in 2002. Diversity and Globalization Workforce diversity from customer service clerks through to the board of directors is a critical dimension for those companies seeking to establish themselves as global enterprises. The Conference Board of Canada released a study last year which concluded that having an ethnically-diverse workforce can make a company more profitable. Gaining the global advantage was the theme of the report, which predicted that if Canadian businesses continue to rely heavily on traditional markets, our export growth and standard of living will be relegated to the slow lane of international commerce. The key to entering international markets, it is implied, is gathering an international employee base to serve as a natural bridge and help Canadian firms penetrate those emerging markets. Ford has manufacturing, assembly and sales facilities in 34 countries and distributes its vehicles through a network of more than 10,500 dealers in more than 200 countries. Alex Trotman, chairman and CEO of Ford Motor Company argues its very important for our product people to understand the different consumer tastes around the world. People in China dont like exactly the same products as people in India. Our performance is global and our workforce has to be global. We have to be very understanding of the issues of the world. Helmut Eppich, founder and Chairman of Ebco Industries, makes the following statement: The world is forcing us to think more globally, more internationally, and this requires an international focus. You need to understand what makes people tickÃ¢â¬ ¦.This is why I think the focus on multiculturalism that Ebco has taken is critically important. Overcoming language barriers, grasping various cultural nuances, attracting the best employees in a changing demographic and establishing good faith with foreign investors are important for a diverse workforce in the cultural microcosms of Canada or the United States, but are survival tactics for firms seeking a global presence. Sandra Wilking, the special advisor to the Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada is cited in a recent Conference Board of Canada study saying that many mainstream Canadian business people arent pursuing opportunities in the Asia Pacific region because of their concerns about differences in language, culture and business practices. With the sheer number of highly qualified Canadians and landed immigrants from all parts of Asia, this is a tremendous wasted opportunity. Employee Resource Groups For more than a decade, ford employee resource groups have provided support, outreach and development to employees who share ethnicity, race, religion, life experiences, disabilities or backgrounds. ERGs hold educational and cultural events and support many diversity-related efforts such as college campus recruiting. Membership is open to all Ford employees. Ford-Employees African-Ancestry Network (FAAN) FAAN champions diversity at Ford by making a positive impact on the African-American community. FAAN promotes leadership development through seminars, mentoring, counselling and Dialogues on Diversity with senior management. Members support summer internship programs and recruiting at minority-focused career events. In the Detroit area, they provide Scholastic Aptitude Test coaching, an area Pre-College Engineering Program, Paint the Town events and Black History Month Celebrations. They also support the United Negro College Fund. Ford Asian Indian Association (FAIA) FAIA works for the success of Ford Motor Company. Its three-part vision is to promote the Ford family of brands as the Brand of Choice for Asian Indian consumers, make Ford the Employer of Choice for Asian Indian professionals, and develop business and technical skills of Asian Indian employees to ensure a competitive advantage for Ford. FAIA also works to enhance awareness and understanding of Asian Indian culture among all employees. Ford Chinese Association (FCA) One of the oldest resource groups at Ford, FCA represents a highly motivated group of dedicated professionals, eagerly bringing diversity to the workplace. FCA promotes activities for technical and cultural exchange within its membership and with outside associations as well. Members actively support the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business initiatives. Ford Finance Network (FFN) The FFN is dedicated to helping new Ford Finance hires acclimate to the company. To that end, Detroit-area members sponsor a professional development event, a social event and a brown bag lunch presentation event each quarter. They coordinate a Ã¢â¬Å"buddyÃ¢â¬ system where new hires are paired with experienced Finance employees. They maintain a Web site that includes the FFN membership database and biographies. This Web site also links to key Ford information, events and FAQÃ¢â¬â¢s, and provides reviews of local entertainment spots. Ford Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Employees (GLOBE) Ford-GLOBE is active in making Ford a gay-friendly company. It strongly supports the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s EEO policy. GLOBE has chapters in Great Britain, Germany and the U.S. providing worldwide networking and confidential employee support. Members actively champion diversity education, recruiting and marketing. They hold monthly membership meetings, lunches and socials while supporting many community events. Ford Hispanic Network Group (F-HNG) F-HNG, through service and support, strives to be a positive force in the Hispanic community. The groupÃ¢â¬â¢s vision is to assist the corporate effort to employ, develop and retain Hispanics in the workforce. Programs include hosting professional development events and sponsoring speakers on diversity initiatives. Professional WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Network (PWN) PWN focuses on professional development for women, promoting an environment that attracts, develops, retains and advances talented women for the Ford team. PWN sponsors motivational speakers, mentoring programs, leadership initiatives and community projects. Women in Finance (WIF) WIF is an affiliate of the Professional WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Network. Ford key goals include the enhancement of personal and professional development, member networking and the support of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s diversity efforts. Initiatives include motivational speakers, panel discussions, recruiting, flexible work arrangements, financial planning and community activities. Ford Parenting Network (FPN) FPN works to support employees in balancing work and family life. We also serve as a resource to the company on issues that affect working parents. FPN primary mission is to further FordÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to create a balanced worklife environment- an environment where maximum contribution at work is balanced with the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s fulfillment of personal and family responsibilities. We work to promote family-friendly worklife policies and decisions at Ford. We sponsor ongoing parenting classes and outstanding parenting seminars, and we offer networking opportunities for Ford parents. Ford Interfaith Network (FIN) Founded in 2000, the Ford Interfaith Network (FIN) aims to assist the company in becoming a worldwide corporate leader in promoting religious tolerance, corporate integrity, and human dignity. They strive to act in accordance with their beliefs and out of love for human beings and all of creation, promoting understanding and respect for the various faiths. They help management to: o increase and maintain religious diversity o attract, develop, and retain talented employees of faith o be more aware of religious consumers and investors needs Middle Eastern Community @ Ford Motor Company (MEC@Ford) Everyone is welcome to join MEC@Ford, a resource group dedicated to making Ford Motor Company the preferred automotive producer among Middle Eastern communities. Goals include building consumer relationships, demonstrating corporate citizenship, promoting diversity and developing cultural awareness. Activities include working with area schools, and mentoring and support for employees of Middle Eastern backgrounds. Ford Employees Dealing with Disabilities (FEDA) Founded in 2002, FEDA envisions becoming the first-stop resource for Ford Motor Company employees dealing with disabilities. They seek to provide information and networking tools, eliminate social barriers, and contribute to culture change in the workplace for the benefit of all. Ford Diversity in the Marketplace More than half of new-car buyers are women or people of color. Today, multicultural groups represent 37 percent of the United States population. By 2010, more than 40 percent of the population will be ethnically diverse. Ford already has the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest family of brands, including Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, Volvo, Jaguar, Mazda, Land Rover and Aston Martin. This vast line-up of products allows ford customers to stay under the Ford Motor Company umbrella as they grow and progress throughout their lives. Each of these brands designs, markets and produces high-quality products that connect with ford customers. Ford products and ford marketing messages have found universal appeal, regardless of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s interests, cultures and traditions. Over the past four years, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s multicultural efforts have grown. They have a solid record of success. Their largest brand, Ford, has been the top U.S. brand for Hispanics for six consecutive years (R.L. Polk data, 1997-2003). Ford Division also has been among the top sellers to the U.S. African-American and Asian markets. Ford Division has awarded more than 850 college scholarship grants, totaling $1,515,000, to Hispanic high school seniors through the Spirit of Accomplishment scholastic program, from 1997 Ã¢â¬â present. The Mustang is the number one selling sports car to Hispanics and African-Americans. It essentially owns the segment with 45% of the Hispanic and 46% of the African-American share. The Ford F-150 is the top selling vehicle to Hispanics and the top selling full-size pickup to African-Americans. 2005 was a record a F-series Hispanic sales year selling more than 61,000 retail units. More F-150s are sold to Hispanics than any other truck, car or SUV in the United States. Left to right: Kiyoshi Ozaki, senior managing executive officer, China Business, Mazda Motor Corp.; Mark Fields, executive vice president, Ford Motor Company, and president, The Americas; Sanae Fusao, interpreter, Mazda Motor Corp. and Kazuhide Watanabe, chairman of the board, Mazda Motor Corp. Ford is aggressively expanding its online presence with highly interactive content in the Hispanic, African-American and Asian markets. They recently launched a new multilanguage Asian-American Web site and have the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s most comprehensive and integrated Hispanic Web site. The FusionÃ¢â¬â¢s integrated multicultural marketing campaign has played a key role in making FordÃ¢â¬â¢s newest midsize sedan a sales success. In 2004, Volvo launched its first brochure in Chinese and Korean. Today, Ford is building upon this strong foundation and taking our multicultural marketing to a new level. Since Ford company began, our grass-roots efforts have reinforced FordÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to diverse populations. They are finding new ways to reach out through local sponsorships and community involvement. Each of their brands has an active multicultural marketing program. Ford is committed to the communities where people do business. This commitment has driven the company to devel op many creative programs that give directly back to the community. The Ford Mi Negocio (My Business) web portal is the first Hispanic entrepreneurial online business community of its kind. It provides sound business advice in Spanish to Hispanic entrepreneurs. Ford is also committed to the Ford Historically Black College and Universities (HBCU) Business Classic, a real world business plan competition with $100,000 in scholarships open to 370,000 HBCU students and their prospective schools. .Ford Dealers Suppliers At Ford, they value the dealers and suppliers who make up their extended family. This is why, for several decades, they have been an industry leader in the development of minority dealers and suppliers. Not only does their support of dealers and suppliers make Ford a stronger company, it also encourages entrepreneurship and brings new wealth and job opportunities to communities throughout the country. Lizabeth Ardisana, chief executive officer, ASG Renaissance, is a Ford supplier and the first woman to chair the board of the Michigan Hispanic Chamber of Commerce. With 373 minority dealers in the United States, Ford has a greater percentage of minority dealers Ã¢â¬â 7.8% Ã¢â¬â than any other major automaker. Ford purchased more than $3.7 billion of goods and services from minority suppliers in 2005 Ã¢â¬â more than the revenue of some Fortune 500 companies. This commitment has earned to Ford a spot on the Ã¢â¬Å"Billion Dollar Roundtable,Ã¢â¬ a small group of companies that have spent $1 billion or more with minority suppliers. FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Insight program helps dealers better understand and serve African-Americans, Asian-Americans, gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender customers, Hispanics, women and young adults. The program includes Web-based cultural training, in-dealership workshops and assistance in developing comprehensive multicultural strategies. Minorities who have dedicated themselves to a career in automotive retailing often are eligible for funding from Ford. Through FordÃ¢â¬â¢s Dealer Development Investment Program, the company will fund up to 90% of an eligible candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s investment capital Ã¢â¬â the seed money thatÃ¢â¬â¢s needed to buy a dealership. Their support of the largest minority suppliers also benefits smaller minority-owned businesses. In 2005, more than 500 of their largest suppliers purchased more than $12 billion from minority-owned businesses. Ford has made its M-Tier program available to all its suppliers. Those who want to launch their own Tier 2 program to report diverse purchases may do so at no charge. They made history in 2004 by awarding a $500-million contract to one of the largest African-American-owned companies in the United States. Through their industry-leading Supplier Diversity Development Program, Ford sponsors financial assistance, loans and subsidies for consultants who work closely with suppliers to develop business plans, improve quality and identify problems. .Conclusion Concluding I would like to say that every company should work on diversity because is very important for everyone and in the end we are all human beings, so we should not have differentiation with each other. And finishing I would like to add the 4 main points for diversity which are: Ã¢â¬Å"By using the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s policy to do things in a positive way and celebrate the key people driving the diversity policy, we have found that people remain motivated and more committed to diversity and its benefits to the business.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Diversity works best when its driven from the top, and is part of the way we relate to one another no matter where we are in the company.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Making the link between diversity and work life balance is critical.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Recognising that contributing to our communities complements our diversity vision.Ã¢â¬ SOURCES USED wikipedia.org ford.com/en bredin.ab.ca/ImmigrantServices/Employment Preparation/Cultural Diversity in the Workplace.aspx Research Papers on Cultural Diversity of Ford Motor Company EmployeesTwilight of the UAWMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New EmployeesAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraResearch Process Part OneThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationHip-Hop is ArtBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Role Of The Public Sphere - Essay Example While there are people who argue that there has been widespread commodification of leisure thus leading to an extension of the same phenomena to media considering it is a medium used by majority of the people to escape from the drudgery of daily lives, there is a strong consensus that with many early surveys used to study people's patterns, there have been empirical problems in distinguishing the opinion leading to consumer and political behaviour. The question of opinion in the public sphere arises due to the fact that many changes are based on the degree of personal contact which is more often than not, dependant on the mass media. These changes have been widely distributed among people ready to change their opinion. In this way, the public sphere and the media have a mutually strong hold over each other where ushering an era of modernity are concerned. It may be added that the public sphere is a dimension where space and geography are conceptualised to signify the factors that lead to modernism. Without the support of the media, transporting such changes to the public sphere would be next to impossible. In a similar fashion, it may be seen that the recent explosion of the information age has transported our lives to that place in time where keeping abreast with the latest on goings has become a matter of utmost and unparalleled importance. With the development of capitalism, a new kind of public sphere consisting of enhanced institutional forms of political power has emergedFurther, a new bourgeois public sphere grew simultaneously to negotiate between these two, consisting of groups of individuals who would debate and discuss and regulate the civil society through constructive criticism. (Hamilton et al, 2002. p 12 to 16) 1 Chapter 2: Features of Public Sphere and its Importance To find fitting answers to the question posed in the above chapter, one will have to delve deeper into the concept itself apart from to the general consensus as far as its meaning is concerned. A public sphere seems to be characterized by three main features where the first has to do with communication in a broad sense. Thus coffee shops, public hearings, town meetings, and other places where people interact with one another face-to-face are included under this criterion. Newer forms such as newspapers, broadcast media, and new venues on the Internet can also be a part of the same where the spread of awareness to garner consensus on an issue is involved. It was in the year 1962 that the philosopher Jrgen Habermas of the renowned "Frankfurt School" in Germany, coined the expression Offentlichkeit, or "public sphere" in English. As explained by Habermans (1989)2, this concept has existed in its true sense in the UK since the 18th century where London society's coffee houses had become the centres of art and literary criticism. This had led to a gradual inclusion of the economic and the political disputes as matters of discussion. In French